Working memory refers to the ability to temporarily hold and manipulate information necessary for performing complex tasks (such as problem-solving, language comprehension, and learning). It can be thought of as an “inner sketchpad” that holds information in mind while we perform operations on it. It is involved in most other cognitive processes, and it is particularly important for conscious thought and decision-making.

While short-term memory refers to the temporary storage of information, working memory refers to the system responsible for temporarily holding and manipulating information in the mind. Therefore, short-term memory is included, but when you are also using the different information to complete a task, the capacity of working memory gets smaller compared to when only short-term memory is used.  Working memory can also interact with long-term memory and other cognitive processes.